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哈拉勒标签:穆斯林的食品许可证(I)
HALAL label and its social implications (I)


穆斯林遵循严格的膳食指南,只准许食用满足哈拉勒要求的食品。据Bob Mok的专栏文章称,哈拉勒认证过程缺乏透明度且不乏欺骗伎俩。它虽受到某些宗教组织的认同,但却遭到其他宗教信仰人士的抨击。

Muslims follow strict dietary guidelines and are only allowed to consume foods meeting Halal requirements. According to Bob Mok’s columns,  Halal certification lacks transparency and may embed deceptive practices. It is embraced by certain religious groups, but faces backlashes from other faith believers.





根据统计,加拿大人口中约有3%是穆斯林(3530万人口中约有100万)。而在美国3.62亿人口中,亦有2.11%或660万人是穆斯林。

Statistically, about 3 percent of Canada’s population is Muslim (roughly 1 million persons out of 35.3 million). In the United States, it is 2.11% or 6.6 million out of a population of 362 million.

为了了解哈拉勒认证现象带来的后果,我们首先要了解“哈拉勒”这个词及其含义:

To understand the need and consequences of the HALAL Certification phenomena, let’s start with the word “HALAL” and its meaning:


对于穆斯林来说,“哈拉勒”是指伊斯兰法所允许使用或从事的任何物品或活动。这个术语涵盖和指定的对象不仅仅只是食品和饮料,还涉及日常生活的方方面面。实际上这个词的简单意思为“允许”。

“HALAL”, to Muslims, is any object or an action which is permissible to use or engage in according to Islamic law. The term covers and designates not only food and drink but also all matters of daily life. The word simply means “allowed”.


与此同时,我们还必须提及“哈拉姆”这个词,因为这个阿拉伯术语意为不允许或不合法。除了特别提及的“哈拉姆”食品,其他所有食品都是“哈拉勒”食品。

We must also mention the word “HARAM” at this time because this is another Arabic term which means impermissible or unlawful in Islam. All foods are “HALAL” except those that are specifically mentioned as “Haram”.


当人们说到哈拉姆的例子时,脑海中会立即浮现猪肉、酒精及其他毒品。实际上除此之外,按照“哈拉勒”屠宰要求宰杀的动物的某些器官和部位也禁止食用。另外,可能含有动物副产品,或是含其他禁止穆斯林食用或是在身上使用的成分的化妆品和药品等非食品类用品,也都属于哈拉姆。

Some examples of Haram comes into mind immediately will be Pork, alcohol, and other intoxicants. Certain organs and parts from animal slaughtered under “HALAL” are also prohibited from consumptions. Non-food items like cosmetics and pharmaceuticals may also contain animal by-products or other ingredients that are not permissible for Muslims to eat or use on their bodies.


在用于食品认证时,哈拉勒是指伊斯兰教法允许穆斯林食用或饮用的食品。同时其还可以彰显食品及其原配料的哈拉勒特征。肉类和动物常常成为问题焦点。出于历史、文化和卫生原因,猪肉及猪肉制品被禁止食用。

HALAL, when used in a “Food” context, defines foods that are permissible for Muslims to eat or drink under Islamic Shariʻah (law). It (HALAL) also specifies the identity of the foods and their preparations. Most of the time, we are dealing with meats and animal issues. For historical, cultural, and hygienic concerns, pork and products deriving from it are not allowed to be consumed.


但是在穆斯林遵守哈拉勒要求时,有两个有趣的事实不容忽视。显而易见的一点是,如果绝对没有其他HALAL食品可食用,穆斯林在迫不得已的情况下也可食用非哈拉勒食品!此外有报道称,由于穆斯林和犹太人的屠宰方式相似,并且有着类似的肉品食用原则,穆斯林亦可食用“犹太洁食”肉品(即犹太人食用的肉品)。

There are two interesting facts about observance of HALAL. Apparently, if there is absolutely no other HALAL food available and the Muslim is forced by necessity, then a Muslim is allowed to eat non-halal food! It was also reported that Muslims are allowed to eat “Kosher” meats (consumed by Jews) due to the similarity between both methods of slaughter and the similar principles of Kosher meats.


在这种情况下,犹太洁食食品就必需确保不含酒精,也不能使用任何源自猪肉的明胶。但他们是如何规避哈拉勒有关穆斯林在屠宰过程前呼诵真主尊名的要求则不得而知。或许,在的确没有其他(符合哈拉勒要求的)食品可食用时,食用不明身份的食品可作为替代选择。

There is a need to make sure that the Kosher food has no alcohol content or any gelatin use is not prepared from swine. How they get around the need to have a Muslim to invoke the name of Allah preceding the slaughter as part of the “HALAL” system (See below) is not explained. May be this is an alternative to eating unknown foods when nothing else (meeting HALAL requirement) is available.


“哈拉勒”屠宰要求涉及三个因素:来源、动物死亡原因以及加工过程。

There are three (3) elements involved in the “HALAL” determination process: the source, the cause of the animal's death, and how it was processed.


1)食品供应商必须严格依照哈拉勒要求行事。具体来说,屠宰者必须是穆斯林,其在宰杀每只动物前都必须呼诵真主尊名,在通常情况下屠宰者会说“Tasmiyah”(真主尊名),然后再连说三遍“Takbir”(真主至大)。

1) The food supplier must use halal practices. Specifically, the slaughter must be performed by a Muslim, who must precede the slaughter of each animal by invoking the name of Allah, most commonly by saying "Tasmiyah" ("In the name of God") and then three times "Takbir” (God is the greatest).


2)屠宰者必须使用锋利的刀子同时切断动物颈部的喉管、气管和血管,不可刀切脊背杀死动物。

2)The animal must be slaughtered with a sharp knife by cutting the throat, windpipe and the blood vessels in the neck, causing the animal's death without cutting the spinal cord.


3)在宰杀后动物静脉的血必须流干。

3)The blood from the veins must be drained.


在加拿大,有许多哈拉勒认证机构(注册机构)。哈拉勒认证程序的概念和ISO 质量认证体系非常相似。被审核单位的产品生产程序、材料以及生产线的卫生/环境卫生情况都必需接受审查评估。参与公司必须提供说明书、标签、流程图、清洁程序及其他产品细节等必要的文件和资料。

In Canada, there are a number of HALAL Certification Organizations (Registrars). HALAL Certification programs are very similar to ISO Quality Programs in concept. Facilities undergo an audit to review production process for products, evaluate ingredients and assess the hygiene / sanitation aspects of the production lines. The participating company has to provide necessary documents and information like specification sheets, labels, flow charts, cleaning procedures and other details of the production.


在通过审核后,认证机构会发放有效期一年的哈拉勒认证证书,在涉及肉类产品时,则会对一批产品发放认证证书。与此同时,相关单位还会获准使用带有独特的哈拉勒认证标记的产品标签。认证机构可能会对合格单位进行监督,或是派出检查员(在适当情况下)见证进行了适当屠宰,以及在肉类产品上打上哈拉勒认证标记。

After passing successful audits, Halal certificate is issued either for one year or, in the case of meat products, based on a batch production. Authorization is given for the use of the unique HALAL symbol of the registrar on product labels. The approved facility may be subject to monitoring or deployment of inspectors from the registrar to witness the proper slaughtering (where applicable) and stamping of the meat with the registrar’s certification logo.


和所有质量认证体系一样,对公司或有关单位进行的哈拉勒认证并不是全面认可。相关证书通常都是张贴在单位的显眼位置,或是公布在证书持有者网站上。由于通过认证的产品只是在证书中所列出的那些商品,因此消费者必须小心选择适当的产品。当然,更直接的身份证明方法就是在产品上贴上哈拉勒认证标签。

Just like any Quality program certification, HALAL certification for a Company or facility is NOT a blanket approval. Certificates are typically posted in prominent locations on the premises or on the Web site of the certificate holder. The approved products are only those items listed on the certificate. The consumer has to be careful about the proper selection of the items. Of course, a more direct means of identification would be the use of “HALAL certified” labels on the products.


如果你看到有非肉类和/或非食品类产品生产单位获得哈拉勒认证证书,也无需感到惊讶。因为我们在前文已经说过,如果产品配料含有酒精或非哈拉勒动物部位,其可能就会属于哈拉姆。因此,甚至连汽油公司生产的用于自动化机器的食品级润滑油都有可能进行哈拉勒认证。

Don’t be surprised if non-meat and/or non-food product facilities are certified. As we mentioned before, ingredients may be HARAM if they include alcohol or NON-HALAL animal parts. One petrol company even certified their food lubricants used in automated machines!


下一次,我们将探讨哈拉勒认证带来的社会和经济影响,以及信仰其他宗教的民众对哈拉勒的强烈抵制。

Next time, we will discuss social and economic consequences of HALAL certifications and backlashes from citizens of other faiths.

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