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大选专栏(II): 联邦政治 和选举常识
Canada’s Political System (II)

哈珀总理8月2日周日解散议会,正式启动联邦大选。Bob Mok的选举专栏文章将继续介绍加国政治系统,包括议会职能和选举常识等。

Harper dissolved the parliament on Aug。2nd,Sunday, officially launching the federal election campaign. In his election column, Bob Mok continues to introduce the Canadian political system – including parliament functions and election basics.
                                                       
读者欲参照前文可点击:

For the earlier article in this series, please go to the following link:
http://096.ca/news/409971

今年指定的选举日(2015年10月19日)是根据《加拿大选举法》设定。按照选举法规,联邦大选定于上一届大选选举日后第四个日历年的10月的第三个星期一举行。不过在此之前,加拿大总督仍可随时召集大选。但这种君主特权行为在按照总理的建议下而为之,而总督几乎一直都是根据惯例和传统遵循建议总理建议。

A designated election date this year (October 19, 2015) was set forth in the Canada Elections Act. By this Act, a general election is to be held on the third Monday of October in the fourth calendar year following the polling day for the preceding general election. This does not impede the Governor General of Canada to call an election at any time prior to that date. Such an act of the royal prerogative is carried out on the advice of the Prime Minister which, by convention and tradition, the governor general must almost always follow.


选民在选举日并不是直接选举总理,而是投票选举国会议员,最终当选议员人数最多的政党的党领就会成为总理。有时候,执政党成员会通过总理隐退或是举行内部党领竞选在在非联邦大选期间接替总理一职。

The voters do not elect a Prime Minister directly on Election Day. He or she is the leader of the political party with the most elected members. Sometimes, a Prime Minister is replaced by the ruling party members through retirement or internal leadership race between Federal Elections.


内阁部长是由总理任命,他们肩负涉及联邦事务的职责,总理还负责政府运作和政策制定。联邦内阁部长对民选议员负责,而这意味着他们必须保持“议会信任”,如果他们在不信任投票中败北,就必须辞职。

Cabinet Ministers are responsible for portfolios relating to federal matters. The Prime Minister selects the Cabinet ministers and is responsible for the operations and policy of the government. Federal Cabinet ministers are responsible to the elected parliamentary representatives. This means that they must retain the “confidence of the House” and have to resign if they are defeated in a non-confidence vote.


在选举日当选议员人数最多的政党就成为执政党。如果执政党赢得的议席超过半数,就可以组建“多数”政府,在任期内不会被反对党推翻,除非内部纷争引爆大选。若非如此,执政党就只能凭借最多议席组建“少数”政府,但它在许多政治问题上都必须与其他政党合作或是作出妥协。“少数”政府必须在议会争取足够支持票才能通过重要法案,尤其是政府的财政预算案。此外,它也必需获得足够支持票,击败政府内的的不信任投票,否则就会面临解散议会提前大选的局面。

The Political Party with the most elected members on Election Day becomes the Ruling party. If more than half of the parliamentary seats go to a political party, they have the “Majority” in the House and cannot be defeated during its term unless it is toppled by its own members. If not, the Party with the most seats forms a “Minority” government and must work with the other parties and compromise on political issues. A “Minority” Government must be able to muster up sufficient votes in parliament to pass important legislation, especially to be able to pass the government's budget. It also needs sufficient votes to defeat votes of no-confidence in the government or face dissolution of Parliament and a General Election.


目前加国共有338个选区,每名国会议员代表其中一个选区的选民。选区是根据人口和地理界限划分。各选区人口差异巨大,其中育空地区的选区人口仅为3万人,而安省部分地区的选区人口则超过15万人。

Members of Parliament represent their constituents in one of the 338 ridings throughout the country. Ridings are organized by population and geographic boundaries. They ranged from 30,000 people each in Yukon to over 150,000 people in parts of Ontario.


未曾担任内阁部长职务的国会议员可以提交私人议案,这些议案的立法程序和政府法案相同。但事实上,只有很少私人议案能够顺利过关。

Individual MP’s who are not cabinet ministers can introduce a private member’s bill that follows the same legislative process as a government bill. In reality, only very few are passed.


在选举日,各个选区的获胜者都是依照“最高票获胜”选举制选出。已登记选民会在当天前往指定的投票站进行秘密投票,在屏风后填写他们的选票。

On Election Day, each riding winner is selected by the “first past the post” polling system. Registered Voters go to designated Polling Stations and cast their ballot in secret, making their choices behind shielding boxes.


在我们应对联邦政府管辖的问题和法规时,我们必须寻求代表我们的国会议员为我们工作。比如,我们可以通过我们的国会议员与内阁部长进行对话,以要求其对移民法规行使自由裁量权。
When we are dealing with issues and laws governed by Federal Politics, we must seek out our representing MP’s to work for us. For example, this can be a dialog with the Cabinet Minister through our MP to request the exercise of discretionary powers on existing immigration rules and regulations.

请注意,在国外旅居五年以上的加拿大公民在即将来临的联邦大选中再无投票权!安省上诉法庭最近作出裁决称,允许在国外旅居五年以上的加人参与联邦选举投票对居住在加拿大的加人不公平。

Please be aware that Canadian citizens who have lived abroad for more than five years can no longer vote in the upcoming Federal Election!A recent Court of Appeal ruling stated that to allow Canadians who have lived abroad for more than five years to vote in federal elections would be unfair to those who live in Canada.


在选举日前往投票站投票时,除了要出示加拿大选举局的选民信息卡,还需要提供其他有效的身份证明或身份验证资料。这一要求曾遭遇法律挑战,但以失败告终。

An Elections Canada registration confirmation card is not enough to get you a ballot at the Polling station on Election Day - other forms of identifications or vouching are required. This requirement was challenged in Court and defeated.


在下一篇文章中,我们将重点介绍省级政治系统。

We will focus on the Provincial Political system next time…



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