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大选专栏(三):加国省政府和议会
Election 2015: The provincial political system


Bob Mok介绍加国政治系统的专栏文章将继续帮助我们了解省级政治系统,包括省议会和省选等。

In his columns to introduce the political system in Canada, Bob Mok covers the provincial politics – from provincial parliaments to the election.
                                                                
读者欲参照前文可点击:

For the earlier article in this series, please go to the following link:
http://096.ca/news/409971
http://096.ca/news/470368

2)省政府:
2) Provincial Government:

如上期专栏所述,联邦政府通常负责处理影响整个国家的事务,如国防、外交、省际和国际贸易、货币制度、海运、刑法和公民事务等。这些职能是由1867年的《宪法》规定。

Just to rehash - The Federal Government generally deals with areas of law affecting the whole country such as defence, foreign policy, interprovincial trade and communications, currency, navigation, criminal law and citizenship. These are listed in the Constitution Act, 1867.


加国10个省政府负责处理本省的教育、医疗保健、部分自然资源开发和公路交通法规等事务。在一些领域,省政府和联邦政府拥有共同职责。加国三个特区亦设有自己的政府,它们负责履行联邦政府所赋予的职责。

The ten (10) provincial government of each province is responsible for areas such as education, health care, some natural resources, and road regulations. In some areas, they share responsibility with the federal government. The three Territories have their own governments, with responsibilities that are given to them by the federal government.


安省的下一次省选将于2018年10月4日举行。省选每四年举行一次,选举日通常是在10月的第一个星期四。和联邦大选一样,省长也可以在固定选举日之前随时建议解散省议会,从而触发提前省选。在少数政府执政的情况下,不信任投票就有可能引发提前省选。在联邦政府中,女王的代表人是总督,而在省政府中,女王的代表人是由总督按照总理建议任命的省督。在特区政府中,女王的代表人被称之为“专员”。

October 4, 2018 will be our next Ontario Provincial election date. Voters go to the polls on the 1st Thursday in October every 4 years. Very similar to the Federal Government, the Premier can advise that the legislature be dissolved at any time prior to the fixed election date -- thus triggering an early election. In a minority government situation, an early election may be called in the event of a vote of non-confidence. Instead of the Governor General as the representative of the Monarch, we have the Lieutenant Governors appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. For the Territories, they are named “Commissioners”. 


同样,选民在选举日并不是直接选举省长。最终当选省议员人数最多的政党党领就会成为省长。有时候,执政党成员会通过省长隐退或是举行内部党领竞选在非省选期间接替省长一职。安省省议会是按照威斯敏斯特体系运作,其成员为省议员(省议会成员)。目前安省政府有107个省议席,其中一席空缺。

Again, the voters do not elect a Premier of a province directly on Election Day. He or she is the leader of the political party with the most elected members. Sometimes, a Premier is replaced by the ruling party members through retirement or internal leadership race between Provincial Elections. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario operates in the Westminster system of government. Its members are MPP’s (Member of Provincial Parliament). There are currently 107 seats in the Ontario Provincial Government and one seat is vacant.


在出现议席空缺时必需进行补选,但即将来临的大选可能会允许空缺席位一直保留至议会解散。补选必须在议席空缺后的六个月内举行。最近,一名省议员宣布辞职,以期能让安省保守党党领布朗通过补选进入省议会。布朗在上次省选后当选安省保守党党领,但在省议会中尚无一席之地。

A by-election is held whenever there is a vacancy in the legislative Assembly, although an imminent general election may allow the vacancy to remain until the dissolution of parliament. A by-election must be called within six months when there is a vacancy. Recently, a MPP resigned his seat to allow the leader of the Progressive Conservative party of Ontario (PC) to be elected into the Legislative Assembly through by-election. Patrick Brown won the party’s leadership race after the last Provincial Election and does not have a seat at this moment.


省内阁部长是由省长任命,他们肩负涉及本省事务的职责,省长还负责省府运作和政策制定。省内阁部长对民选省议员负责,而这意味着他们必须保持“省议会信任”,如果他们在不信任投票中败北,就必须辞职。 

Provincial Cabinet Ministers are responsible for portfolios relating to provincial matters. The Premier selects the Cabinet ministers and is responsible for the operations and policy of the government. Cabinet ministers are responsible to the elected parliamentary representatives. This means that they must retain the “confidence of the House” and have to resign if they are defeated in a non-confidence vote.


在选举日当选省议员人数最多的政党就会成为执政党。如果执政党赢得的议席超过半数,就可以组建“多数”政府,在任期内不会被反对党推翻,除非内部纷争引爆省选。若非如此,执政党就只能凭借最多议席组建“少数”政府,但它在许多政治问题上都必须与其他政党合作或是作出妥协。“少数”政府必须在省议会争取足够支持票才能通过重要法案,尤其是政府的财政预算案。此外,它也必需获得足够支持票以击败政府内的的不信任投票,否则就会面临解散省议会提前省选的局面。

The Political Party with the most elected members on Election Day becomes the Ruling party. If more than half of the parliamentary seats go to a political party, they have the “Majority” in the House and cannot be defeated during its term unless it is toppled by its own members. If not, the Party with the most seats forms a “Minority” government and must work with the other parties and compromise on political issues. A “Minority” Government must be able to muster up sufficient votes in parliament to pass important legislation, especially to be able to pass the government's budget. It also needs sufficient votes to defeat votes of no-confidence in the government or face dissolution of the Provincial Parliament and a General Election.


在选举日,各个选区的获胜者都是依照“最高票获胜”选举制选出。已登记选民会在当天前往指定的投票站进行秘密投票,在屏风后填写他们的选票。在所有投票站都关闭后,计票结果会在电视上公布。

On Election Day, each riding winner is selected by the “First past the post” polling system. Registered Voters go to designated Polling Stations and cast their ballot in secret, making their choices behind shielding boxes. Results are reported on television when all the Polling Stations are closed.


在下一篇文章中,我们将重点介绍市级政治系统。

We will focus on the Municipal Political system next time…

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