内容

大选专栏 (四):加国的市政系统
Canada’s Political System (IV)


Bob Mok的选举专栏文章将继续介绍市政系统以及市长和市议员选举方式和过程。
In his election column, Bob Mok focuses on the municipality system and the election of mayors and city councillors.
                    
读者欲参照前文可点击:
For the earlier article in this series, please go to the following link:
http://096.ca/news/409971
http://096.ca/news/470368
http://096.ca/news/513600

3)市政府

3) Municipal Government:

加国有两种市级政府,分别是区级政府(例如约克区、滑铁卢区),和市镇政府(例如万锦市、纽马克特市和奥罗拉市等)。

There are 2 kinds of Municipal governments – Regional Municipality (Example: York region, Waterloo Region) and Local Municipality (Example: Markham, New Market, Aurora, etc.).


区级政府所服务的区域内包含多个市镇政府。在人口密集的区域,这一级政府能够更加有效地提供服务,如主干道修建及维护、交通、治安、排水及供水系统、废物处理、区内土地规划及开发、以及健保和社会服务等。

Regional municipalities provide services over an area encompassing more than one local municipality. For highly populated areas, this tier of government is more efficient in providing services, such as maintenance and construction of arterial roads, transit, policing, sewer and water systems, waste disposal, region-wide land-use planning and development and health and social services.


市镇政府则负责娱乐设施和服务、废物管理、消防、公园及步道,以及文化设施等服务。此外,市镇政府还负责提供与主干道、下水道及桥梁相关的基础设施,并负责一些社会服务项目的运作,所有这些职责都与当地居民生活直接相关。市议会负责掌管大城市,而更小的地方政府通常被称为镇、村、教区、农村市、乡镇或小村庄。

Local municipalities looks after Recreational facilities and services, waste Management, Fire Services, Parks and pathways, Cultural facilities, etc. They also provide infrastructure for main roads, sewers, and bridges and also handle social services. All of these responsibilities have to do with a direct interaction with its inhabitants. City councils govern the large municipalities while smaller governments are commonly called towns, villages, parishes, rural municipalities, townships, or hamlets.


安省政府可以透过合并法规《市政法》规定市政府的职权范围,及其内部组织和结构。目前,安省共有444个市政府。

The province of Ontario governs the extent of powers and duties, internal organization and structure of municipalities through a consolidated statute – The Municipal Act. The current total number of municipalities in Ontario is 444.


在有郡或区等另一级市政府参与向居民提供服务时,市镇政府也被称之为“下级”市府。如果在一个地区只有一级市政府执政,即被称为单级制市政府。安省的单级制市政府有Chatham-Kent市、Greater Sudbury市、汉密尔顿市、渥太华市和多伦多市等。

Local Municipalities are also referred to as "lower tier" municipalities when there is another level of municipal government like a county or region involved in providing services to residents. Where there is only one level of municipal government in an area, it is called a single tier municipality.Examples of single tier municipalities in Ontario: City of Chatham-Kent, City of Greater Sudbury, City of Hamilton, City of Ottawa and the City of Toronto.


自2010年以来,市政选举每四年举行一次,选举日通常是在10月的第四个星期一。下一届市选将于2018年10月22日举行。

Municipal Elections are held every four years on the fourth Monday in October since 2010. The next one will be held on Oct 22, 2018.


市议员或市参议员是通过两种选举制产生,分别是民选或各选区分别选举。如果市议员是民选产生,就由所有市议员代表整个市政府。在选举中得票最多的候选人会当选新任市议员。如果市议员是各选区选举产生,并且每个选区只产生一名市议员,获胜者将通过“多数票者当选”制确定。在安省,市议会的首领被称为市长或行政长官。

There are two systems to elect municipal councillors or aldermen – elected at large or by ward.If councillors are elected at large, all councillors represent the entire municipality. The candidates with the highest number of votes win the election and become the new councillors. If councillors are elected by wards and each ward is represented by only one councillor, then the winner will be determined by the “First past the post” system.In Ontario, the head of a local municipal council is either called the Mayor or the Reeve. 


区议会主席负责领导区议会。区议会主席可通过区议会成员投票产生,或是由选民直接选举。一些当选的区议会主席同时在区议会和市议会任职。在一些市政府中,市议会会直接任命其市议员兼任区议员。而市议会的首领也会兼任区议员。

Regional Chair is the head of a regional council. The chair can be chosen by a vote of the members of regional council or directly elected by voters. Some are elected to sit on both the regional council and the local municipal council. In some municipalities, members of local municipal councils are appointed by their councils to serve at the regional level. The head of council of a local municipality is a member of the regional council.


加国政治系统中的三级政府都向居民征税,并各司其职提供服务作为回报。对于所有想让自己辛苦挣来的血汗钱直接实现效益最大化的公民和移民来说,对三级政府的职能进行基本了解很有必要。

The three levels of government in our political system collect taxes from us and provide services corresponding to their responsibilities in return. A basic understanding of their functions is necessary for all citizens and immigrants when they want to maximize results out of their hard earned dollars without getting the “run around”.

我们鼓励所有读者在我们的文章和博客上分享意见。We are committed to maintaining a lively but civil forum for discussion, so we ask you to avoid personal attacks, and please keep your comments relevant and respectful. Visit the FAQ page for more information.