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大选专栏(五) :席位分布及政党优势
Election 2015: election basics

在大选即将来临之际,Bob Mok的专栏文章将继续向读者介绍席位分布及主要政党优劣势等基本知识。

Bob Mok’s column covers the basic knowledge of the upcoming election: from seat distribution across the country to the strength and weakness of the major parties.



第42届联邦大选将于2015年10月19日举行,届时加拿大人将会投票选择在未来四年执掌加国政权的政党。而本次为期11周的选举,也是加国近代史上竞选期最长的一次联邦大选。

The 42ndFederal Election is coming on Oct 19, 2015 (Monday). Canadians will be going to the polls to choose a Political Party that will govern this country over the next 4 years. This current eleven week election campaign is the longest in modern Canadian history.


我此前发表的两篇有关加国政治系统的文章http://096.ca/news/409971http://096.ca/news/470368已经详细论述了联邦政府的架构及职能。参照这两篇文章可能有利于读者加深对选举基本知识的了解。

My earlier articles on the Canadian political system http://096.ca/news/409971 and http://096.ca/news/470368elaborated on the Federal Government structures and responsibilities. It may be beneficial for readers to refer to them to get a better understanding.



目前加国选区数量已增至338个,新增议席根据人口比例分配给阿尔伯塔省(6个),卑诗省(6个),安省(15个)及魁北克省(3个)。第42届联邦大选议席分配情况如下:

The number of electoral districts was increased to 338, with additional seats based on population assigned to Alberta (6), British Columbia (6), Ontario (15), and Quebec (3). The 42nd Federal Election seats will have the following distributions:


安省:增加15席(共121席)
Ontario: 15 more seats (121 seats in total)

卑诗省:增加6席(共42席)
British Columbia: 6 more seats (42 seats in total)

阿尔伯塔省:新增6席(共34席)
Alberta: 6 more seats (34 seats in total)

魁北克省:新增3席(共78席)
Quebec: 3 more seats (78 seats in total)

其他所有省份和特区:议席数量没有变化(缅尼托巴省14席,新布伦瑞克省10席,纽芬兰及拉布拉多省7席,新斯科舍省11席,爱德华王子岛省4席,萨斯喀彻温省14席,三个特区——西北特区、努勒维特和育空各1席。)

all other provinces and territories: no change in number of seats (Manitoba 14 seats, New Brunswick 10 seats, Newfoundland and Labrador 7 seats, Nova Scotia 11 seats, PEI 4 seats, Saskatchewan 14 seats and 1 seat each for the three territories - Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon.)

如果我们想要“预测”本次大选的结果,就必须关注各政党在各省份和特区的最新支持率。不同民调公司(有时并非完全独立)进行的民调或许有助于我们了解投票趋势的早期迹象。但是,普通市民常常难以读懂和理解这些统计数据。不同的民调误差率各不相同,新闻变动也会导致民调结果出现波动。唯一准确的民调就是加拿大选举局在投票日举行,并由选民在投票站投票的大选。对于政党来说,过早显露锋芒可能有害无益,尤其是在各政党支持率旗鼓相当时更是如此。

We must look at the recent strengths of each political party in each Province and Territories if we are to “predict” the outcome of the upcoming election. The Polls taken by different polling companies (sometimes not totally independent) may serve to provide some early indications of voting trends. However, the statistics are always difficult for the average citizen to read and interpret. Margins of errors can differ from one Poll to the next. Polls can fluctuate due to developing new stories. The only accurate poll is the one on voting day done by Elections Canada and dictated by the voters in their voting booths. Peaking too early can be bad for political parties especially when the numbers are very close in a popularity contest.

从传统上说,加国有三个主要(主流)政党——保守党、自由党和新民主党党。这些政党虽然一直在加国政坛举足轻重,但却不应与在某次大选中赢得最多议席的“多数”执政党混淆。在加拿大,“官方政党”至少要在议会拥有12个议席。相比其他政党,官方政党可获得更多议会特权和经费。

Traditionally we have 3 major (main-stream) parties in Canada – Conservative, Liberal, and New Democratic Party. These are parties that hold substantial influence in Canadian Politics consistently and not to be confused with a “majority” party that hold the most seats in the Parliament at any given election. In Canada, “Official Party” status is now recognized only when a minimum of 12 members are elected to Parliament. An official Party will receive more parliamentary privileges and funding than other parties.


加拿大选举局是负责管理联邦大选的机构,目前该局已确认20个登记的政党。除了上述三大政党外,我们较为熟悉的一些政党还有魁人政团和绿党。这两个政党在议会都拥有议席。

Elections Canada is the organization in charge of the administration of Federal Elections and they identified 20 registered political parties. Other than the three parties above, some of the more familiar names to us are the Bloc Quebecois and Green Party. Both of them had elected members to the Parliament.


而那些从未赢得过议席的政党则被称为“边缘政党”。以下就是一些边缘政党的名称,其中有些名称听起来很有趣,因为它们并未体现这些政党严肃认真地争取全体民众支持,而是只涉及某些群体所关心和倡导的特定事宜。

The parties that never have elected members are known as “Fringe Parties”. The following are the name of some of these parties. Some of the names can be very entertaining as they do not reflect a seriousness of the Party to appeal to the entire population but rather relate to issues only interested and supported by specific groups.


例如犀牛党、大麻党、加拿大桥党 以及加拿大海盗党。

For example: The Rhinoceros Party, the Marijuana Party, the Bridge Party of Canada, and the Pirate Party of Canada.


在下一篇文章中,我们将论述全国各省份和特区的传统选票格局。

Next time, we will look at the traditional distribution of votes in each Province and Territories from coast to coast..





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