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加国多元文化一瞥(一)
Evolution and future of Canada’s multiculturalism (I)

随着来自印度、中国和菲律宾的大量移民涌入加国,加拿大的多元文化及移民政策亦日益重塑其人口格局。Bob Mok的专栏文章详细介绍了加国多元文化的发展历程及未来展望。
Canada’s multiculturalism and immigration policies have increasingly shaped its demographic landscape, as a growing number of immigrants from India, China and the Philippines land in this country.  Bob Mok’s columns shed lights on the evolution and the future of Canada’s multiculturalism.
 
 
多元文化一直是加国吸引外国移民的宣传卖点。过去数十年,许多垂青加国的潜在移民都被其所宣传的扬的文化多样性,包容性以及“多元文化”深深吸引。身为1960年代的移民 ,我亲眼目睹了加国多元文化的发展历程,因此有资格就此发表一些个人见解。

Multiculturalism has been trumpeted by Canada as a selling point to recruit immigrants from other countries. Over the decades, potential immigrants to Canada have been attracted by its advertised cultural diversity, tolerance, and “multiculturalism”. As an immigrant from the 1960’s, I witnessed the evolution of multiculturalism in Canada and I am in a good position to provide an assessment.

 
由于移民与多元文化有直接关联,我们首先有必要回顾一下加国移民政策的历史。1910年,自由党国会议员Frank Oliver开始尝试拟定移民法,他赋予政府更多管理移民事务的权力,并将许多意欲移民加国的人士拒之门外。此外,加国也开始对华裔移民强征每人$500元的人头税。

Since there is a direct correlation between immigration and multiculturalism, we must first examine the history of Canada’s Immigration Policy. In 1910, Liberal MP Frank Oliver made an attempt in defining immigration laws. He increased government power in this area and barred a broad spectrum of people.  A $500 head tax was also imposed on Asian immigrants.

 
1962年1月19日,时任联邦公民及移民部长Ellen Fairclough引入禁止种族歧视的新移民法。按照新法规定,所有合格移民都可以进入加拿大,无论他们是何种肤色、种族或国籍。

On January 19, 1962, the Honourable Ellen Fairclough, Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, introduced a new immigration act that virtually eliminated racial discrimination. This new act stated that suitable immigrants can enter Canada, irrespective of colour, race, or national origin.

 
1966年,皮尔森政府发表移民政策《白皮书》,该份文件概述了加国应该如何吸纳能够适应加拿大社会的新移民,和阻止无法适应加拿大生活的移民。此外,文件还允许基于人道主义或同情理由接纳某些移民。

In 1966, the Pearson government introduced the White Paper on immigration policies. This document outlined how Canadians should accept those who can adapt to Canadian society and barring those who cannot adapt. It also allowed admissions to certain immigrants for humanitarian or compassionate reasons.

 
1967年,加国确立沿用至今的移民评分系统,以通过语言和技能等指标对移民申请人进行评估。该评分系统力图消除所有歧视和偏见。在此期间,亚洲移民也代替了欧洲移民成为加国的移民主力军,同时加国与第三世界国家的贸易也在不断增加(当时日本已成加拿大第三大贸易伙伴,仅次于美国和英国)。

In 1967, the Points System used today was established to judge immigrants on qualifications such as language and skill. This system attempted to remove all discrimination and prejudice. During this time, the pattern of immigration swerved from Europeans to Asian immigrants, concurrent with Canada's increased trade with third world countries (at that time, Japan became Canada's third largest source of trade after the U.S. and Britain).

 
为现行移民法奠定了基础的1976年制定的移民法,旨在促进加国的人口、经济、文化和社会发展目标。新法鼓励家庭团聚,还将加国移民划分为四个基本类别,分别是家庭类移民;包括难民、受迫害或流离失所人士在内的人道主义类移民;自愿选择移居加国的独立类移民;以及亲属担保类移民。

The Immigration Act in 1976 formed the laws we follow today was intended to promote Canada's demographic, economic, cultural and social goals. This new act encouraged family reunification. Under this Act, there are four basic categories for landed immigrants in Canada The first classification is family; second, humanitarian, including refugees, persecuted or displaced persons; third, independents who followed their own initiative to immigrate to Canada; and finally, assisted relatives.

 
随着这一系列具有里程碑意义的移民法规相继问世,加国的移民政策也从以欧洲移民为主转为以更具全球化的国际移民为主。与此同时,家庭团聚移民政策也在持续提升老年移民的配额数量。而所有这一切最终都对加国多元文化产生了广泛而深远的影响。

Through this series of immigration milestones, Canada’s immigration policy shifted from a European immigrant based component to a more global constituent. As well, the family reunion aspects of the policy increased the number of elderly immigrants steadily. All of these eventually created many profound impacts on Canada’s multiculturalism.

 
在过去十年里,加国平均每年吸纳近25万名新移民。统计数据还显示,在这其中有近6.5万人,或25%是“家庭类”移民。在此期间,加国的前三大移民来源国分别是印度、中国和菲律宾。总体来看,这三个国家每年移居加国的新移民总量超过10万人,占到加国年吸纳移民总量的40%,而伊朗和巴基斯坦则分列加国的第四和第五大移民来源国。与此同时,加国给予香港和台湾居民(和中国大陆分开列表)的移民配额在过去三年已经降至不到1,000个。

Over the last decade, Canada admitted an average of roughly two hundred and fifty thousand (250,000) immigrants each year. Out of this statistic, almost sixty-five thousand (65,000) or (25%) are of the “Family Class”. During this time, the three top contributing countries to Canada’s Immigration populations are India, China, and the Philippines.  Together, these countries provided over one hundred thousand (100,000) or 40% of immigrants coming to Canada each year while Iran and Pakistan took fourth and fifth spots. In the meantime, Immigration for Hong Kong and Taiwan residents (tabulated separately from China) went below (1,000) one thousand persons over the last three years.

 
很显然,在过去数十年里加拿大移民政策已经重塑加国的人口格局。但虽然加国的“少数族裔”终有一天将会变成“多数族裔”,加国多元文化政策的方向与重点却并未适时调整以跟上人口变化的步伐。

It is evident that the composition of Canada’s population has been reshaped by its immigration policies over the decades. “Visible Minorities” will one day become the “majority” in Canada’s population and yet the direction and focus for multiculturalism has not been adjusted to keep pace. 

 
在下一篇文章,我们将介绍加国多元文化的起源。

Next time, we will look at the origin of Canada’s multiculturalism.
 
 
 
 
 
 

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