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加国的多元互融与美国文化熔化
Multiculturalism: Canada’s cultural mosaic v.s. America’s melting pot

在下文中Bob Mok继续介绍加国的多元文化,并将美,加两国的移民政策进行比较。
In his column, Bob Mok continues to shed light on Canada’s multiculturalism, comparing the difference between immigration policies in Canada and US.
本文是加国多元文化专栏系列文章之一,读者欲参照前文 可点击:
This is part of a series of articles on Canada’s multiculturalism. For the earlier article, please go to the following link:
 
移民与多元文化有直接关联。随着移民政策重塑加国的人口格局,加国行政措施以及多元文化政策的方向也会随之调整以应对人口变化。这些因素不断交叉作用,相互影响。

There is a direct correlation between immigration and multiculturalism. Immigration policies reshape the constituent of Canada’s population thus affecting the administration and directions of multiculturalism to deal with the changes. Both of these elements are engaged in an endless loop.

 
加国的现代多元政治理念来源于1960年代组建的双语双文化皇家调查委员会。1971年,加国时任总理皮埃尔•特鲁多(现任总理贾斯汀•特鲁多的父亲)宣布加拿大将会采纳认同和尊重其社会包容语言、习俗和宗教多样性的多元文化政策。1982年,《加拿大人权与自由宪章》第27条正式认可多元文化。此后时任总理布莱恩•穆罗尼(Brian Mulroney )又颁布了《加拿大多元文化法》。

The origin of modern political awareness of multiculturalism started with the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism in the 1960’s. Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Father of Justin Trudeau – the current Prime Minister) declared in 1971 that Canada would adopt multicultural policy that would recognize and respect its society that included diversity in languages, customs, and religions. In 1982, multiculturalism was recognized by section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Canadian Multiculturalism Act was subsequently enacted by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney at that time.


按照现任联邦自由党政府的部署,多元文化事务是由加拿大文化遗产部部长(Melanie Joly)负责。而在过去,多元文化部长职位通常由负责公民事务的部长兼任。2013年,已身担其他部长职位的康尼被任命兼任多元文化部长,接管了原由加拿大文化遗产部部长挂名负责的多元文化部。  

Under the current Federal Liberal government, the Minister of Canadian Heritage (Melanie Joly) is responsible for multiculturalism. In the past, this post was frequently combined with that of the responsibility for citizenship. In 2013, the multiculturalism portfolio, nominally under the Minister of Canadian Heritage, was assigned to the Honourable Jason Kenney who was appointed Minister for Multiculturalism in addition to his other portfolios.


 
加国的多元文化政策可让所有公民自由地信奉自己的宗教和保持其文化特征免而遭受迫害之忧。该政策认为在消除这种担忧后,加拿大人会更加乐于接受不同的文化。因此,政策重点强调种族间相互尊重,以及包容别人的信仰。但是,相关政策却并未提及在此类信仰包容行为对现有文化传统,日常生活,以及/或其他族裔群体的宗教信仰造成危害时,应该采取何种补救措施。

Canada’s multiculturalism policy allows citizens to practice their religions and keep their identities without the fear of persecution. The policy believes that without this fear, Canadians would be more willing to accept different cultures. The policy, therefore, emphasizes a mutual respect between ethnicities and also acceptance of one’s personal beliefs. It is however, silent on the remedy for the practice of such beliefs when they are infringing on existing cultural traditions, daily lives, and/or the beliefs of other ethnic groups.


《加拿大多元文化法》有两个基本原则。第一个原则是所有公民都是平等的 ,都可以自由地保留、推广和分享自己的文化遗产。第二个原则是促进所有族裔社区和个人充分平等地融入加拿大社会生活。

The Canadian Multiculturalism Act has two fundamental principles. First, all citizens are equal and have the freedom to preserve, enhance and share their cultural heritage. Second, it promotes the full and equitable participation of individuals and communities of all origins in all aspects of Canadian society.


在人们评估加国多元文化时,常常会拿美国的移民情况作比较。移居美国的移民往往只为一个简单的目标——融入主流社会,成为“文化熔炉”中的一份子。在移民入籍成为美国公民时,他们必须宣誓效忠美国,并放弃此前所持的所有国籍和对原籍国的效忠。而加拿大却允许公民拥有双重甚至多重国籍,以鼓励公民与原籍国保持联系。事实上,有许多移民甚至一拿到公民身份就会永久地离开加拿大。

When one is evaluating Canada’s multiculturalism, it is always compared to the situation in the United States. There is only one simplistic goal for immigrants coming into the United States – integrate into mainstream society and become part of the “Melting Pot”. When one becomes a United States citizen, they swear allegiance to the country and give up on all other previously held nationalities and allegiance. Canada, on the other hand, allows dual and even multiple nationalities and this encourages citizens to keep their ties with their countries of origin. It is true that many citizens even leave Canada permanently once they obtained citizenship.


哪种体系更适合加拿大?是美国的“文化熔炉”政策还是加国的多元文化政策?实际上这是两种截然相反的体系,我个人倾向于将这两种政策折中融合。加国的多元文化政策显然还有改善空间,而要清除的首要障碍就是加国的“政治正确”风潮。如果人们不能公开阐明自己的立场,也就无法采取补救措施改进加国现有的多元文化体系。

Which is a better system for Canada? The “Melting pot” approach of the United States or Canada’s multiculturalism? The two systems are sitting on opposite ends of a wide spectrum. My personal preferences will be one constructed out of compromises of the two. There is definitely room for improvement on Canada’s multiculturalism. The first obstacle to be removed is the practice of “political correctness” in Canada. If people cannot speak out to identify their contesting points, remedial actions cannot be formulated to strengthen our current multicultural system.

 
在下一篇文章,我们将继续介绍加国多元文化,以及大多数加拿大人对多元文化的看法。

Next time, we will continue to look at Canada’s multiculturalism and how most Canadians feel about it.

 

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