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加国多元文化之弊端
Canadian multiculturalism is flawed

Bob Mok在此文中揭示了加国多元文化的弊端,认为加国的多元文化有可能引发分歧,甚至会破坏加拿大人与不同文化背景族群间的关系。
Bob Mok’s column reveals the flaws of the Canadian multiculturalism, believing that promoting the cultural diversity may spawn divisiveness, driving a wedge between Canadians between different cultural backgrounds. 
 
本文是加国多元文化专栏系列文章之一,读者欲参照前文 可点击:
This is part of a series of articles on Canada’s multiculturalism. For the earlier article, please go to the following links:  
 
很不幸,加国的多元文化政策与美国的“文化熔炉”政策在移民和主流文化融合方面的立场截然相反。我认为最理想的做法是将这两种政策折中,以寻求中间立场。

It is unfortunate that Canada’s multiculturalism is running at the opposite spectrum to the United States “Melting Pot” approach on immigration and integration of cultures to the main stream. For me, the ideal is to strike a balance and seek the middle ground.

 
从1970年代开始,少数族裔在从争取就业机会到与其他多数族裔公民(欧洲裔)交往等日常生活中的许多方面都必须忍受不同程度的非明显的(种族)歧视。语言技能成为少数族裔融入社会的关键因素,如果不能熟练掌握英语或法语(官方语言),无论移民在原籍国具备多高的文凭和技能,他们都难以打开融入主流社会,通向事业成功的大门。

From the 1970’s, visible minorities had to endure a level of silent (racial) discrimination in many aspects of their daily lives, from employment opportunities to interactions with other majority citizens (European races).  Linguistic skills become the critical criterion for acceptance in society. Without proper command of the English or French (Official languages), doors that lead to advancements and integration are closed for immigrants and citizens regardless of their credentials and skills possessed from their Country of origin. 

 
统计数据显示,大多数加拿大人既不排斥多元文化,也不反对大量移民涌入。2010年公布的多份报告和民调结果显示,有56%的加拿大人普遍支持多元文化社会,即便这不一定是事实,至少在原则上是如此。2011年的一项民调显示,只有38%的加拿大人认为移民人数太多。

Stats show that most Canadians are not rejecting neither multiculturalism nor immigration numbers. In 2010, various publications and polls suggest that 56% of Canadians are generally supportive of a multicultural society, at least in principle if not always in practice. A 2011 poll showed that thirty-eight (38%) of Canadians felt that immigration levels are too high. 

 
但是魁北克省的情况有所不同。自联邦多元文化政策推出以来,当地居民一直坚决表示反对。魁省省民认为多元文化政策将会淡化加拿大的法国元素,削弱讲法语人士的地位,并会对加国英语母语人士和法语母语人士的双重主导地位构成威胁。他们认为多元文化政策的实施无异于联邦当局再次插手干预魁省的内部事务。许多居民担心多元文化政策是政府实施的某种手段,其目的是剥夺魁省在加国的独立地位而将其降为英语国家的一个少数族裔。打着多元文化旗号将加国法语母语人士的权利削减至和其他少数族裔相同的水平之做法显然是对加拿大两大建国之民族的背叛。

But things are different in Quebec, where residents have resisted federal multiculturalism policy since its inception. Québécois perceive that Multiculturalism will dilute the French factor in Canada, weakening francophone status and threatening the dual partnership of English-speaking and French-speaking Canadians. They viewed multiculturalism as another intrusion by federal authorities into their province’s internal affairs. Many fear multiculturalism being used as a ploy to downgrade the distinct society status of Québécois to the level of an ethnic minority culture under the domination of English-speaking Canada. Reducing the rights of French-speaking Canadians to the same level as those of other ethno-racial minorities in the name of multicultural equality is viewed as a treacherous act to one of the two founding peoples of Canada. 

 
在我看来,加国的多元文化政策有明显弊端。虽然多元文化政策的捍卫者辩称,该政策是通过不强求移民在保留自己的文化遗产和融入加拿大社会之间做选择以鼓励少数族裔之共融,但大部分新移民都难以据此融入主流。事实上,加国在努力融合其他文化的过程中已渐渐丢弃自身的文化特色。由于加国的多元文化政策一味突出文化差异,而不是强调文化统一,该政策在过度促进文化多样性而丧失了加国本身的价值观。

In my view, the Canadians’ multiculturalism is clearly flawed. While defenders of multiculturalism argue that it encourages integration by telling immigrants they do not have to choose between preserving their cultural heritage and participating in Canadian society, this cannot be easily achieved by most newcomers.  In fact, Canadian culture and symbols are being discarded in the effort to accommodate other cultures. The policy is promoting too much diversity at the expense of unity, because it emphasizes what is different, rather than the existing values that are Canadian. 

 
实际上,加国政府大力促进文化多样性的做法已引发分裂。鼓励种族差异性促使许多新移民产生了脱离现有主流文化的“分离心理”,从而导致不同族裔划地为牢,少数族裔群体进一步陷入孤立,加拿大人与不同族裔群体间的关系也因此遭到破坏。多元文化政策滋生某种理论,既它会导致社会分裂,加剧误解和敌意,并会导致少数族裔为争夺有限的资源而内斗。

Canadian Government’s promotion of cultural diversity actually spawned divisiveness. The encouragement of ethnic differences promotes a “psychology of separation” from the existing mainstream culture for new immigrants. This leads to the forming of distinct enclaves and further isolates ethno-racial groups and drives a wedge between Canadians of different ethnic backgrounds. Multiculturalism grows a philosophy that separates, intensifies misunderstanding and hostility, and pits one group against another in the competition for power and resources. 

 
在加国推动多元文化的过程中,加拿大人渐渐变成了“本土陌生人”。为了政治正确,加国的历史在课堂中遭抹煞,在年青人中被遗忘。由于加拿大人对本国历史的了解越来越少,一些人甚至无法通过有关历史事件或名人的基本测试。多元文化政策进一步促使许多移民乃至土生加拿大人相信加拿大,尤其是英语主导的加拿大根本丧失了自身的文化。

Through multiculturalism, Canadians were becoming “strangers in their own land.” Political correctness means the death of Canadian history in the schools and among Canadian youth in general. Canadians are learning less and less about their history and cannot pass relatively basic tests about historical events or personalities. Multiculturalism policies have helped spread the idea among immigrants and even native-born Canadians that Canada, particularly English-speaking Canada, has no culture and identity of its own. 

 
在下一篇文章,我们将继续探讨加国多元文化之争议。

Next time, we will continue to look at Canada’s multiculturalism controversies.
 

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