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加国多元文化政策之悲哀

当少数族裔宗教传统习俗侵犯加拿大人的权利时,据加国多元文化制定的法规却视而不见,漠然处之。Bob Mok在加国多元文化专栏系列文章中指出,这是加国多元文化政策之悲哀。
When religious customs and practices of ethnic groups infringe on the rights of Canadians, Canadian laws and regulations on multiculturalism stay silent.  That is sad, says Bob Mok in the fifth article in his series on multiculturalism. 
 
本文是加国多元文化专栏系列文章之一,读者欲参照前文 可点击:
This is part of a series of articles on Canada’s multiculturalism. For the earlier article, please go to the following links:  
当一些富有争议的族裔宗教习俗并未侵犯他人权利时,加拿大人通常会勉强予以接受。此点可从上文允许锡克族皇家骑警警员在执勤时佩戴穆斯林头巾,和允许锡克教教徒佩带吉尔班弯刀(一种礼仪佩刀)中窥见一斑。

When controversial customs from ethnic groups are not infringing on the rights of others, Canadians begrudgingly accepted them. This was illustrated in the examples given in the last article on the wearing of turban as part of the RCMP uniform and carrying of the Kirpan (a ceremony knife) by religious Sikh members.


加国为新接纳的穆斯林难民提供的最新一轮优待举措令加国的多元文化政策再次面临挑战。这不仅是因为这些难民被认为得以享受加拿大人享受不到的特权和福利,他们的宗教习俗也备受讥讽和嘲弄。但此次挑战与以往有何不同?

 The latest round of receptions given to new Muslim refugees coming into Canada brings yet another challenge to multiculturalism. Not only are they perceived as receiving privileges and benefits not given to Canadians, their religious customs are the subject of ridicule and scorn. What is the difference this time? 


美国和欧盟最近的经历都进一步扩大了穆斯林难民带来的影响。加国的挑战始于在国内不被允许的一夫多妻制。目前,安省家庭法已允许持有效的一夫多妻制婚姻证件抵加的女性申请配偶赡养费及其他福利津贴。虽然相关法规尚未受到挑战,但外界普遍认为那些在本地通过阿訇证婚的女性也有望以弱势群体为由提出同样的申请。

The recent USA and European experiences served to magnify the impact of Muslim refugees. It started with polygamy which is not allowed in Canada. Ontario Family Act allows women who came to Canada with valid polygamous marriage documents to claim spousal support and welfare benefits. While the law has yet to be challenged, it is believed that those married here by imam could also likely do the same on the basis of being vulnerable persons.


穆斯林女性所穿的从包住所有头发(希贾布)到只露出眼睛(尼卡布),乃至从头包到脚(布尔卡)的宗教服饰也让许多加拿大人深感不满。当人们发现海关官员并不要求穆斯林女性去除服饰以验证身份后,这些其他加拿大人显然无法享受到的特权亦引发了安全担忧。在去年的联邦大选中,联邦新民主党就因为在穆斯林女性在入籍宣誓仪式上是否可以戴面纱的问题上栽了跟头,最终在魁北克省流失了许多席位。

The wearing of religious garments that ranges from the covering of hair (Hijab) to showing of the eyes only (Niqab) and a total cover on the head and body (Burka) irked many Canadians. When it was discovered that customs official did not ask for the removal of garments to verify identities, there was security concerns as these are obvious privileges not given to other Canadians. In last year’s Federal election, it caused the NDP Party to lose many seats in Quebec over the wearing of Niqab at citizenship swearing-in ceremonies.


当一名空姐因斯兰教而拒绝接触猪肉和酒水,她因此被调至另一个岗位后,她一纸诉状告上法庭,希望其雇主能够开设两种独立的收银线。在(美国)的Target门店中,也曾出现过收银员因为拒绝接触宗教禁品而被调至其他部门的情况。 

When an airline stewardess converted to Islam in USA stopped serving liquor, her colleagues were very unhappy to take on the extra workload. One cashier in Costco (USA) refused to handle pork and liquor and when transferred to another post, he sued and wanted his employer to have 2 separate kinds of check-out lines. Other cashiers in Target stores (USA) have also been transferred to other departments for the refusing to handle items forbidden by the religion.

 
目前,在加国人口中占比高达3%的(穆斯林)群体正将自己的宗教习俗强加到其他民众身上。加国大学食堂必须供应“清真”肉制品,其他公共场所必需应对非常敏感的诉求,追求政治正确的管理者只能顺势而为。由于一些生产“清真认证”食品的大型肉类和食品制造商对此秘而不宣,从而剥夺了其他消费者的选择权,基督教以及其他宗教团体成员往往会在不知不觉中消费“清真”产品。随着加国已经开始禁止学生携带花生酱制品到学校,不少人担心禁止学生及家长携带猪肉制品到学校只是时间问题。

Three percent of the Canadian population (Muslim) is now imposing their religious practices on the rest of the populace. “Halal” meats have to be supplied in University restaurants and other public places through very subtle demands and compliance by the politically correct managers. Christians and other religious groups are asked to consume “Halal” products unknowingly when major meat and food manufacturers are producing “Halal certified” products without announcing their compliance thus depriving the consumers of their choices. It is fear that it is just a matter of time when kids and their parents will be asked not to bring pork based foods into school, along with the banning of peanut butter products already enforced.

 
2003年,安省政府被要求废除相关法规,并允许穆斯林教徒只遵守伊斯兰教法。在一番激烈辩论后,这一要求被驳回。2008年,由于一些市府未有坚决抵制相关要求,每到周五下午,一个学校食堂便会变身为清真寺,以便穆斯林学生聆听来自附近清真寺阿訇的教诲,和面向麦加方向做祈祷。目前,在加国各地的公立学校里都可看到同样的场景,还有许多学校食堂专门供应以真主之名加工的清真食品。

In 2003, the government of Ontario was asked to set aside its laws and have only the Sharia law apply to its religious members. After a fierce debate, it was turned down. In 2008, the municipal governments did not hold back against the demands. One cafeteria becomes a mosque on Friday afternoons so that Muslim students can listen to an imam from a nearby mosque and pray towards Mecca. The same scene is repeated at public schools across Canada today and many of their cafeterias only serve Halal food that have been sacrificed to Allah.

 
在穆斯林女性依据伊斯兰教法要求当局给与她们单独游泳的机会后,阿尔伯塔省埃德蒙顿市府自2008年开始禁止男性在每周的特定时间段进入游泳池。

Since 2008, the municipal government of Edmonton in the province of Alberta has been denying men access to its swimming pools during certain hours of the week after Muslim women demanded opportunities to swim without men around, in accordance with the Sharia Law.


这一次,由于许多加拿大人的自身权利都受到了侵犯,基于宗教传统习俗的文化终于触动了他们的神经。但可悲的是,加国的《多元文化法》和《权利与自由宪章》却对此无动于衷。

This time, culture based religious practices finally touched the nerves of many Canadians because their rights are trampled on. Sadly, the Multicultural Act and the Chapter of rights and freedom stay silent.


下一次,我们将论述另一个因素——承认双重国籍对加国多元文化的影响。

Next time, we will look at another factor that affects Canada’s multiculturalism – the dual citizenship recognition. 
 

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