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约克区的机会与挑战(I)
Changes and opportunities facing York Region (I)

位于闪高湖和多伦多之间的约克区下属有多个城市、城镇和乡镇。Bob Mok在本系列专栏中阐述了拥有大量华裔移民人口的约克区政府所面临的机遇和挑战。
Located between Lake Simcoe and Toronto, York Region has multiple cities, towns and townships under its control. Bob Mok column series identify challenges and opportunities facing the regional municipality that has a large demographic of immigrants from China.
 
当加国人士询问加拿大政府分为几级时,他们最有可能得到的答案是“3”级——联邦、省府和市府,但实际上这个答案并不完全正确!因为市一级政府中还分为两个不同级别的地方政府——由区议会主席或区长领导的“上级”区、郡和地区政府;以及隶属于上级政府,包括由市长或行政长官领导的市、城镇、乡镇和自治市府在内的“下级”政府。

When Canadians are questioned on the number of levels of government in Canada, they most likely will respond with an answer of “3” - Federal, Provincial, and Municipal. This answer is not entirely correct! Under the Municipal government level, there are 2 distinct levels – the “Upper tier” of Regions, Counties, and Districts that are headed by a Chair or a Warden. There are also "Lower tier" municipalities existing within an upper tier that include Cities, Towns, Townships, and Municipalities and are headed by a Mayor or a Reeve. 
 
市府是省府或特区政府必不可少的“产物”。省府可以任意创建、改变或取消一个市府,并全权控制市府享有哪些权力。安省目前共有444个市政府,6个区政府,10个地区政府,另外还有许多郡、城镇和乡镇政府。

Municipal Governments are essential "creatures" of the provincial or territorial governments. The Province can create, modify, or eliminate a municipal government at will and controls exactly which powers a municipal government is entitled to execute. There are currently 444 municipalities, 6 Regions, 10 districts, and many counties, towns, and townships in the province of Ontario. 
 
地处多伦多都市区以北的约克区级市创建于1971年。约克区位于闪高湖和多伦多之间,人口超过100万,下属九个城市、市镇和乡镇。约克区议会的三个主要成员分别是万锦市、旺市和列治文山,这三个市镇的人口占到约克区总人口的大半(75%)。其余区议会成员分别是纽马克特镇、奥罗拉、乔治拿镇、维特祖治-斯多夫维尔镇、东贵林伯里镇和国王镇。约克区的许多居民都是移民,其中大多是来自中国大陆的移民。

North of Metropolitan Toronto, the Regional Municipality of York was created in 1971. York Region is located between Lake Simcoe and Toronto with a population of over one million represented by nine cities, towns, and township under its control. The three major members on the York Regional Council – City of Markham, City of Vaughan, and the town of Richmond Hill make up a majority (75%) of York Region's population. The rest of the members are – the towns of Newmarket, Aurora, Georgina, Whitchurch-Stouffville, East Gwillimbury, and the King township. Many of the residents in York Region are immigrants with the majority coming from Mainland China.
 
约克区的居民和纳税人需要缴纳两级市政税,其中一部分税收归于约克区政府,其余则被各自所属的城市、城镇或乡镇政府纳入囊中。但是作为为居民提供所需服务的区政府,其效率多年来一直遭受质疑,许多居民都想知道他们缴纳的税钱是否能够更加有效地用于提供造福当地居民,他们希望能减少约克区在多级政府官僚支出,并避免区议会成员间长期持续的政治争坳。

Residents and ratepayers in the York Region pay two level of municipal taxes. One portion of it goes to the York Region and the other to their own city, town, or township. Over the years, many of them questioned the efficiency of York Region as a provider of services to their needs. They wonder if their tax dollars can be better spent to procure their own services. They want the cost of the extra level of bureaucrats reduced and its constant political bickering activities among the Council members removed.
 
在过去几年里,许多事件都表明约克区议员和他们所代表的选民之间缺乏及时沟通。此外,还有一些事件亦让居民感觉纳税人的钱没有用在刀口上。在2014年市选中,万锦市一名市长候选人甚至提议万锦市退出约克区。

In the last couple of years, many incidents suggested the lack of timely communications between York Regional Councillors and the constituents they represented. There are also incidents where residents felt that tax dollars can be managed in a more efficient manner. In the last municipal election in 2014, one Mayoral candidate in Markham even proposed the withdrawal of that City from York Region membership!

 
约克区议会由20名从各个下属城市和城镇选出的代表组成,其中包括九个下属市镇的市长,以及11名从下属市镇选出的区议员,其中:

The York Region Council consists of 20 elected representatives from each of the constituent towns and cities in the region. These include each of the nine mayors, and 11 regional councillors who are elected from the constituent municipalities as follows:
 
 
乔治拿镇和纽马克特镇各占一名,列治文山两名,旺市三名,万锦市四名。第21任区议会主席是从其代表中选出,但是这种情况可能会在2018年的选民公开选举中发生改变,目前相关的改革立法正在等待省议会的最终批准。

One each from Georgina and Newmarket, two from Richmond Hill, three from Vaughan and four from Markham. The 21st  member (the Chair) is to be elected amongst its representatives – this may be changed to an open election by the public in 2018 pending legislation currently awaiting final approval in the Provincial Parliament.
 
约克区各级政府职责何在?以下是该区下属所有城市、城镇和乡镇所提供服务的列表:
• 法院服务
• 护理服务
• 家庭和儿童服务
• 住房
• 长期服务
• 规划和经济发展
• 警察服务
• 公共健康
• 区域道路和行道树
• 社会援助
• 固体垃圾处理
• 公交/ Viva(巴士)
• 水/废水处理
• 约克区树林
 
What does the York Region do for us? Below is a list of their services covering all of the Region's cities, towns, and township:
• Court Services
• Paramedic Services
• Family and Children’s Services
• Housing
• Long-term Care
• Planning and Economic Development
• Police Services
• Public Health
• Regional Roads and Street Trees
• Social Assistance
• Solid Waste Management
• Transit/Viva (buses)
• Water/Wastewater
• York Regional Forest
 
 
下一次,我们将探讨约克区某些居民对去政管理的不满。
Next time, we will look into the some of the recent dis-satisfactions expressed by some of the residents living in the York Region.
 

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