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加国选举改革(三):加国人士应积极参与
Electoral reform(III): a major decision affecting all Canadians

加国选举改革委员会建议联邦政府彻底改革选举制度并就此进行公投,但相关建议却遭到自由党国会议员的批评,他们称此时实施选举制度改革并进行公投过于激进。但是Bob Mok在其第三篇加国选改系列文章中认为选举制度改革是一项会对所有加国人士产生广泛而深远影响的重要决策,并呼吁所有公民积极参与,并发表个人见解。读者如欲参照前文,请点击:http://096.ca/news/655268
 
The electoral reform committee has made recommendations to overhaul the voting system and to hold a referendum. But recommendations were criticized by the Liberal MPs, saying the voting reform and referendum is too radical to implement. But electoral reform is a major decision that has a broad, long-lasting impact on all Canadians, say Bob Mok in his third article of a series on electoral reform, which encourages citizens to get involved and to make their voice heard.  For his previous articles, click http://096.ca/news/655268
 
 
让我们继续了解其他拟议的选举制度:

Let us continue our examination of other Proposed voting systems:
 
(3)相对多数或绝对多数制:

(3) Plurality or Majority System:
 
按照这种选举制度,最终赢得绝对多数(50%)或相对多数(得票数超过其他竞选者)投票的候选人即可胜出。该选举制度也被称为“优先选择投票”制。

The winning candidate is the one that either wins by a majority (50%) of votes cast or a plurality (receiving more votes than others). This is also called “Ranked Balloting”. 

在选举过程中,选民会按照自己的喜好对候选人进行排名。如果在第一轮计票中没有候选人赢得多数选票,就会进行再次计票。第一选择票最少的候选人将被淘汰出局,而其所得的第二优选选择票将会重新分配给相应的候选人。如此循环计票将会反复进行,直至有一名候选人赢得多数选票。

In this arrangement, voters rank the candidates in the order of their preference. If no one receives a majority on the first count, then additional counts will take place. The candidate with the least first-preference votes will be eliminated from the race and his/her second place preference votes are reallocated to the respective candidates. The cycle will be repeated until one candidate receives a majority.
 
 
由于联邦自由党的政纲与联邦新民主党非常接近,有传言称这种选举制度是自由党的首选。鉴于自由党候选人在大多数选区都是和保守党候选人分列第一或第二,当新民主党候选人在循环计票中终被淘汰时,他们很可能会成为从新民主党选民处获得最多第二优先选择票的政党候选人,而这显然有利于自由党。在这种情况下,自由党将会大获全胜,几乎可以确保赢得多数党政府。

This system is rumoured to be the one preferred by the Liberal Party since their platforms are very close to those of the NDP. With the Liberals running first or second with the Conservatives in most ridings, it is advantageous to the Liberals as they will likely be the one party to receive the most second place preference from the NDP voters when the NDP candidates are eliminated late in a counting cycle. In this scenario, the Liberals will win big with almost a guaranteed majority. 
 
 
(4)混合选举制度——混合比例制(MMP):

(4) Mixed Electoral System – Mixed Member Proportional (MMP):
 
 
混合选举制度是将相对多数或绝对多数制和比例代表制混合在一起。按照这种选举制度,选民在投票站会拿到两张“选举区”选票,其中一张选票是直接选出心仪的候选人担任他们的代表,另一张选票则是投给一个或多个政党,以填补按照各政党所获选票在总票数中所占比例而分配的众议院议席。各政党所分配的议席数额与他们在选举中所获选票的比例成正比。直接选出的国会议员和各政党所提名的候选人将共同把持众议院所有席位。

Mixed Electoral System is a combination of Plurality or Majority System with Proportional Representation. Voters get 2 votes at the polling station for their voting “district”. One vote is to directly elect an individual member to serve as their representative and a second for a party or parties to fill seats in the legislature allocated in according to the proportion of the vote share they receive. Each party's seat count is proportional to the share of votes it received in the election. Seats are held by a combination of directly elected MP's and candidates from parties' lists.
 
 
所有这些拟议的选举制度对普通民众来说都很难理解,从而会导致他们无法按规定投票。此外,一些拟议的选举制度也将使得政党可以基于得票史确定各选举区内的候选人而部署策略,从而可将其获胜几率达到最优。由于有许多变数会对选举结果产生巨大影响,因此这种选举结果往往不可预知。

All of these proposed systems are very difficult for the average citizen to comprehend and cast their votes properly. Some of these will also allow political parties to maximize their chances and success through the strategic placement of candidates within voting districts based on voting popularity histories. Results can be unpredictable as there are many variables that can affect the outcome in a dramatic fashion.
 
 
选举改革委员会在2016年12月1日提交的多数派报告建议政府就此进行公投,并提议以比例代表制替代“简单多数制”,但报告并未详细说明具体采用哪种模式。与此同时,联邦新民主党和绿党的委员会成员亦公布了联合补充报告,联邦自由党的委员会成员也公布了自己的报告。

On Dec1, 2016 the committee majority report suggested that a referendum be held and on a Proportional Representation system against the “First-Past-The-Post” system without specifying any particular model. There were also  joint supplementary reports from NDP and Green party members, as well as one from the Liberal Party members of the committee.
 
 
因为未能确定“具体的”选举模式,多数派报告被主管部长(穆瑟夫)批评“不完整”。很显然,来自各党派的委员会成员并未就具体的选举模式达成一致。而新民主党和绿党的联合补充报告则明确提出了两种具体模式!

This majority report was criticized by the Minister responsible (Monsef) as “incomplete” since it did not identify a “specific” election model. It is evident that committee members from different parties cannot come to an agreement on specific election models. The joint supplementary report from the NDP and Green Party clearly proposed two specific models!
 
 
主管部长一再表示联邦政府在未得到所有加人广泛支持的情况下不会继续推进选举制度改革,但她同时亦质疑公投是否是征询民意的最佳方式。

The Minister has repeatedly stated that the Government will not proceed with reform without the board support of all Canadians yet she questions whether a referendum is the best way to tabulate public opinion.
 
 
如果政府没有就最终决定进行全民公投,而是(像媒体所报道的那样)选择通过邮寄问卷调查寻求支持,那反馈结果将无法真实反映大多数人的意愿和意见。许多人认为因省级政府此前就选举制度改革进行的公投曾两次遭民众否决,从而导致联邦政府担心公投结果不佳,无法获得公众的一致认同和批准。此外还有许多人对公投的必要性提出根本性质疑.
 
If the government is not giving the Canadians a referendum on the final product and opting to ask for support through a mailing survey (as reported by the media), the returns will not be a true picture of the majority's will and opinion. Many feel that the government is afraid of failure to gain public consensus and approval as previous provincial referendums on electoral changes were twice voted down by citizens. Many questioned the need to have Electoral Reform in the first place!
 
选举制度改革是一项将会在未来数十年对所有加国人士产生深远影响 的重要决策。我们不能只依靠由12名国会议员组成的选举改革委员会作出决定,而是应该通过致电或写信向当地的国会议员表达对此事的关注,并要求就此进行公投。我们的未来取决于我们是正确行事还是无动于衷。

Electoral Reform is a major decision that will affect all Canadians for decades to come. We cannot rely on a committee of 12 MP's to decide it. Make your concerns be known to your local MP's by calling them or writing to them and demanding a referendum on this matter. Our future depends on it – let us do this correctly or don't do it at all.  
 
 
 

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