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加拿大为禁用塑料做好准备了吗?
Is everyone in Canada ready to ban plastics?




联邦选举已经结束,自由党少数政府将不得不与其他政党合作,以确保自己不被赶下台。通常情况下,少数党政府会通过一些能得到一个或多个政党支持的法案,以确保法案以多数票获得通过,即338票中的170。

Another Federal election is over and the minority Liberal government will have to work with other parties to sustain its ruling power. Typically, a minority government works with bills that would receive support from one or more parties to ensure its passage with a majority of votes (170/338).

在众多的法案中,有一个早在2019年6月提出的“禁用塑料”法案。该法案将获得NDP和绿党的支持。此案通过后,自由党将在今后的选举中再次获得年轻和关注环保选民的选票。

One of the bills that is destined to move forward and get passage will be the “Plastic ban” bill announced back in June, 2019. This is a bill that will receive support from the NDP and the Green parties. With its passage, the Liberals will once again capture votes from the young and the environmentally friendly voters.

从广泛意义上说,以下就是政府试图向你兜售的东西:

Using very broad terms, here's what the government trying to preach:



塑料污染是一项全球性的挑战,需要立即采取行动。塑料废弃物最终进入我们的垃圾填埋场和焚化炉,或者被丢在我们的公园和海滩上,污染我们的河流,湖泊和海洋,并造成乌龟,鱼类和海洋哺乳动物的死亡。

Plastic pollution is a global challenge that requires immediate action. Plastic waste ends up in our landfills and incinerators, litters our parks and beaches, and pollutes our rivers, lakes, and oceans, entangling and killing turtles, fish, and marine mammals.

在加拿大,只有不到10%的塑料被回收。如果不做任何政策改变,到2030年,加拿大人每年将扔掉价值约110亿元的塑料。这是个刻不容缓的问题。

Less than 10 per cent of plastic used in Canada gets recycled. Without a change in course, Canadians will throw away an estimated $11 billion worth of plastic materials each year by 2030. We’ve reached a defining moment, and this is a problem we simply can’t afford to ignore.

上面提到的内容没有指出加拿大的塑料污染占全世界污染的份额。加拿大每年废弃的塑料为300万吨,占世界每年3.8亿吨的0.79%。加拿大再次承诺将投入大量资源来解决塑料污染问题,但我们的努力对全世界的影响实在微不足道。这类似于碳税问题,加拿大碳排放量只占世界的1.6%,但因为政治需要,碳排放问题在加拿大被人为地扩大。

The statements above do not identify the magnitude of plastic pollution produced by Canada relative to world-wide numbers. That number is 3 million tonnes a year or 0.79 percent of the world's total of 380 million tonnes per year. Once again, Canada is committing tremendous amount of resources to deal with a small fraction of its contribution to the world's problem. This is similar to the Carbon tax issue where Canada's share of 1.6% of Carbon gas emissions is magnified to suit political gains.



加拿大政府承诺在2021年之前禁止使用有害的一次性塑料产品(例如塑料袋,吸管,餐具,盘子和搅拌棒),并采取措施减少塑料产品的包装和污染。这一许诺有充足的科学根据,是件应该做的事。渥太华将与各省和地区合作,制定塑料产品或销售带有塑料包装物品的标准和目标,以使生产商对自己的塑料废弃物负责。

The Government of Canada promised to ban harmful single-use plastics as early as 2021 (such as plastic bags, straws, cutlery, plates, and stir sticks) where supported by scientific evidence and warranted, and take other steps to reduce pollution from plastic products and packaging. It will work with provinces and territories to introduce standards and targets for companies that manufacture plastic products or sell items with plastic packaging so they become responsible for their plastic waste.

根据政府的说法,通过改善我们处理塑料废弃物的方式并投资解决塑料废弃物的办法,我们可以减少180万吨的碳污染,创造数十亿元的收入,并创造约42,000个工作岗位。问题是,渥太华没有提供证据如何实现这一目标,以及何时能实现这一目标的细节。

According to the government, by improving how we manage plastic waste and investing in innovative solutions, we can reduce 1.8 million tonnes of carbon pollution, generate billions of dollars in revenue, and create approximately 42,000 jobs. How these are substantiated and the details on the time frame to achieve these goals are not provided.



以下是你应该知道的塑料废弃物的统计数据:

There are some statistics on plastic waste that one can be aware of:

每年,加拿大人丢弃的塑料废物超过300万吨。这意味着每年浪费了宝贵的资源和能源,经济损失高达80亿元。加拿大使用的塑料中约有三分之一用于一次性、使用寿命很短的产品和包装。实际上,在加拿大,每年使用多达150亿个塑料袋,每天使用近5700万个吸管。

Every year, Canadians throw away over 3 million tonnes of plastic waste. This represents up to $8 billion per year in lost value and wastes valuable resources and energy. About one-third of the plastics used in Canada are for single-use or short-lived products and packaging. In fact, in Canada, up to 15 billion plastic bags are used every year and close to 57 million straws are used daily.

塑料需要很长时间才能分化并分解。我们日常生活中使用的塑料袋需要10到1,000年才能分解,塑料瓶需要450年以上的时间。一次性尿布在垃圾填埋场中分解大约需要250-500年,废弃,丢失或丢弃的渔具进入我们的海洋后需要长达600年才能分解消失。

Plastic products take a long time to break down and decompose. Even plastic bags we use in our everyday life take anywhere from 10 to 1,000 years to decompose, and plastic bottles can take 450 years or more. Disposable diapers take approximately 250-500 years to decompose in landfills, Abandoned, lost or discarded fishing gear enters our oceans can persist in the environment for up to 600 years.



一些市政当局开始研究塑料废弃物问题,并希望在联邦政府即将颁布的立法之前采取措施遏制塑料的使用。为此,他们必须做好功课,并探索所有可能性,以避免在联邦法律生效后再次修改或调整自己的塑料废物政策。
 
Some municipalities start to look at the plastic waste issues and want to initiate steps to curb their use, ahead of the Federal government's upcoming legislation's. In doing so, they have to do their homework and explore all the possibilities to avoid having to amend or adjust their own by-laws on plastic waste a second time when the Federal laws come into play.

面临这一问题的恰恰就是万锦市。在后续的文章中,我们来看看他们是怎么解决塑料污染问题的。

One of such municipality happens to be the City of Markham. Let us take a look at their approach in the coming weeks.



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